THE NUMBER 666 AND THE GIZA PYRAMIDS
The most studied architectural object in the world is the Great Pyramid. Vast literature is still produced in order to expose another view, measurement, or another theory that will explain the rationale or irrationale of this ancient mystery. But it has always been considered separately. In fact relatively recent Orion theories produced by Hancock and Bauval started to treat the Giza Plateau as a whole. It has always been considered that the big wonder is the Great Pyramid, and the Second and Third Pyramid are mostly presented as degradation from perfection. From a proportional point of view this notion would be hard to sustain, if the other two pyramids were so carefully and colorfully analyzed as the Great Pyramid. John Legon was the first to produce a theory that is consistent about the composition of the whole of Giza Plateau. Whether the pyramids were hijacked by the Pharoh’s aplenty or were really built by them as we are led to believe we will never know. But what follows is simple mathematics and this we do know for sure. Is this really how to interpret it or is something missing that is yet to be discovered is a good question that only time and newer technologies can answer? However before the concept of “a Christ” and “an Anti-Christ” existed, the number 666 already had a divine meaning. Its interpretation remains on what it is linked to, and the belief reflects the state of the times, in my opinion. One man’s food is another man’s poison. So what was then considered the mark of the Sun and sacred is now the mark of the Satan. Wonder in another few thousand years where “666” will end up? Here is the full story and some other interesting facts.
It is obvious that the sum of the sides of the rectangle that embraces all three pyramids symbolically represent a sqr(2) and a sqr(3). To find this, Legon chose a fundamentally correct approach: he transferred the measurements into measures of the ancient Egypt, royal cubits. Other kinds of analysis of the intention of the builders from our point of view is completely futile. The correct numbers would be 1,732 and 1,414 royal cubits, and the real measurements of this vast object differ only in 2-4 royal cubits approximately. 1 royal cubit = 0.52375 meter or 20.620 inches. Even this error is questionable since extreme dimensions of the Giza Plateau can be deduced from Petrie's measurements only as a sum of bases and spaces of the pyramids, and the Second's and Thirds's bases can vary in 1 royal cubit.
At this point let’s part from Legon's findings and will introduce some new findings concerning the composition on Giza. Analysis of the different parts of the Great Pyramid's exterior dimensions and interior 'hollowings' shows that a most notable constant expressed and repeated many times is pi. This 'infinity' is preserved even in the whole plane, for sqr(2)+sqr(3) = 3.146 which can roughly represent the value of pi. A noticeable co-incidence of measures is the distance of the center of the Second Pyramid from the base of the Great Pyramid which is 418 royal cubits or the same as the edge of the Great Pyramid.
Curiously, but there is a ratio that closely resembles the described relation between a sqr(3) and a sqr(2) - 11:9. This ratio 11:9 represents a modular grid of the whole composition on Giza plateau, with the module of 100 x Pi/2 royal cubits (= 157 rc). Not only the main dimensions fit this module, but also some other dimensions. Eleven modules are further divided into 7 and 4, two for ancient Egyptians most sacred numbers, encoding also the Pi approximation - 22/7 (11:7 = Pi/2). Seven modules also connect the center of the Great pyramid with the center of the Third, while 11/2 modules is the distance between the centers of the Second to the center of the Third pyramid. Numbers from the described composition are also factors in the third of Fibonacci Series, and fourth of Pell's Series.
A longitudinal section of the plateau reveals also an important property of the composition: the heights of all three pyramids together equal the empty space between them:
280+275+125 = 680 = 250+430
(Figure above: Giza Plateau from West: heights of the pyramids and spaces between them.)
Are all three pyramids inter-connected by means of proportions? A theory concerning the circles that can be placed within and without the sections of the pyramids will be presented, that attempts to resolve the inter-relation between the three pyramids. This is a most unusual way to handle the relations between the parts and the whole, and is unknown in corpus of analyzed architectural compositions. If the pyramids are inter-related by means of proportions that don’t necessarily implicate that the pyramids were constructed all three at the same time. If not, the gnosis was carefully preserved and the sacred proportions maintained throughout the following generations that continued to construct the pyramids on Giza plateau.
Every triangular section of the pyramid has a circle inscribed and a circle circumscribed. A circle that can be inscribed into the Great Pyramid has the diameter of 213 royal cubits. This measure is also the distance between the Great Pyramid and the Second. A circle circumscribed to the Second pyramid has 213 royal cubits for a perimeter. The inscribed circle is 205 royal cubits in diameter which is also a half of the base of the Second pyramid, 410 royal cubits. Finally, 205 royal cubits is also the diameter of a circle circumscribed to the Third Pyramid. Both dimensions that rule the composition, 205 and 214 royal cubits, are together the same as the edge of the Great Pyramid, which is calculated as 418 royal cubits. Schematically, the inscribed circle of the first pyramid becomes the circumscribed circle of the second, and the inscribed circle of the second becomes the circumscribed circle of the third pyramid. Below the idealized scheme of the 'circular' composition is drawn, idealized because in some places it is hard to tell from Petrie's measurements whether it is 213 or 214 royal cubits.
(Figure above: A strange composition of circles in-scribed and out-scribed to the pyramids.)
An interesting feature of this composition is also the sum of the circumferences of the circles that are inscribed to the triangles, which is 1,615 royal cubits, which reminds on fi constant = 1.618034. Both circles of the Great Pyramid represent a Solar number 666, since 453+213 = 666 royal cubits. The number 666 is the sum of numbers from 1 to 36 forming the so-called Magickal Seal of Sun, a grid of 6x6. Number 6 always represents the idea of Sun, and Egyptian equivalent that would best suit this office is most popular Osiris, the dying God. A clear illustration of Osiris associated with number 6 is Amen-en-Apt rod, where Osiris comes as the sixth in a row of Egyptian pantheon:
(Figure above: Amen-en-Apt rod representing the correct succession of Egyptian gods, beginning with Atem, and Osiris on the sixth place.)
THE GIZA PYRAMIDS PLAN
INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT THE GIZA PYRAMIDS
1. The Pyramids at Giza are the only 7th Wonder of the Ancient World still remaining. The accuracy and the precision of the Great Pyramid both at the level of individual blocks, and as a whole, are without precedent. Modern day engineers are at a loss as to how it was done. The tools described as necessary for the cutting of stone and the positioning of stone have never been found nor are they referred to in ancient records. The precise cutting of granite, including precise interior surfaces, requires complex, powered machinery with industrial diamond bits. The raising and exact positioning of granite blocks as heavy as 80 tons to heights as much as 300 feet above ground would require huge, powerful cranes – according to current industrial practice. It is simply beyond the capacity of wooden structures and human laborers. The entire positioning of the whole structure is so accurate that modern, surveying, optical equipment would seem to be an absolute necessity. The interior fit of stones in the Kings Chamber and Great Gallery appears to be almost watertight. A mortar was used which had a higher hardness than the stones it was used on. The mortar was analyzed for elemental content but it has not been duplicated. The centers of the three oldest pyramids lie exactly on a Fibonacci spiral and the opening to the Hall of Records is geometrically marked by the lines which bisect the golden rectangle. The opening to the Halls of Records, which hold the history of the Earth, is found in the right shoulder of the Sphinx. This has been clearly marked geometrically. Looking at the picture below, if the golden rectangle that fits around the spiral at the plateau is bisected it passes exactly through the headdress of the Sphinx. Also, a line extended from the southern face of the middle pyramid and the line that bisects the golden rectangle form a cross that marks a significant spot on the right shoulder of the Sphinx
(Figure above: Schematic showing the locations of the pyramids, and the Sphinx with respect to the Fibonacci spiral.)
2. During the reigns of Hatshepsut, Akhenaten, Ramses the Great, Tutankhamun, and Cleopatra, the pyramids were already ancient and mysterious monuments.
3. The pyramids would have been visited by these pharaohs and looked upon with the same disbelief and wonderment, as we do today.
4. The pyramids were known as - 'The Houses of Eternity'.
5. Every pyramid has been plundered.
6. The pyramid was the vessel by which Pharaoh ascended to the Heavens and the Afterlife.
7. The word pyramid is derived from the Greek word, 'pyramis'.
8. The Ancient Egyptian word for a pyramid was 'mer'.
9. Magical pyramid text promised death and disaster to anyone who tried to plunder them.
10. Architects and surveyors used a standard unit of measure called a 'Royal Cubit', about 52.3 centimetres.
11. The true pyramid evolved from the step pyramid and the step pyramid from the mastaba.
12. Pharaoh was buried under a Step Pyramid, rather than inside, as in the true pyramids.
13. Pyramids were 'Royal Funerary Monuments'.
14. These monuments included not only the pyramid but other structures such as, several temples, courtyards, processional ramps, secondary pyramid, enclosure walls and waterways connected to the River Nile.
15. Pharaohs sarcophagus was placed inside the burial chamber facing West.
16. The east-west celestial and solar axis of the pyramids relate to the concept of rebirth/resurrection. The east being the land of the living, the west, the land of the dead.
17. Pyramids were only built for Pharaohs, unlike mastabas, which were also built for dignitaries, such as other members of the royal family and court.
18. It was a great honor to be buried near a king, as you could share in his immortality.
19. The pyramids at Giza are built on a limestone plateau, so they were higher than the Nile flood plain. This meant that when the river flooded, the river would come very close to the base of the pyramids, but never quite reach them.
20. There was a system of waterways, connected to the Nile, which enabled boats to moor up near the funerary temples and also allowed stone to be transported close to the construction areas.
21. As of yet, there is no documentation showing precisely how pyramids were built. Egyptologist can only theorize on the subject, mainly using data from later periods of Egyptian history.
22. The ancient Egyptians obviously had advanced knowledge of mathematics and geometry, as pyramid construction clearly shows.
23. The position of a pyramid was determined by many factors including the position of the stars, (in particular the constellations of Orion, Plough and Ursa Major) alignment with other pyramids, the position of the River Nile (north and south axis), the land of the living and dead (east and west axis).
24. A granite or basalt monolith was placed on top of the pyramid. The Egyptians called the top; a benbenet, whilst the Greeks refer to it as; a pyramidion. It is thought that Khufu's weighed about 7 tonnes.
25. Khufu’s father, Sneferu, built the first true pyramid at Dahshur. (Early 4th Dynasty) He appears to be the first pharaoh to start assigning names to pyramids.
26. Pyramid building was abandoned due to the tremendous costs involved and the inability to stop tomb robbers.
27. The new, seemingly better-protected graves were situated in the Valley of the Kings, near Thebes.
28. It's thought that the pyramids were built using basic tools and equipment such as; ropes and sledges to move the blocks of stone, ramps to haul the stones up the pyramids, chisels, saws, drills to cut and 'dress' the stone blocks, winches and A-frames to lift and place stone into particular positions, and scaffolding for men to work from etc.
1. The Great Pyramid was built for the Pharaoh Khufu (2589-2566BC - 4th Dynasty).
2. Khufu was the son of Sneferu.
3. The pyramid is situated at Giza, near Cairo.
4. It is regarded as a 'true pyramid' with smooth sides, the steps having been covered with a limestone casing.
5. It has an angle just short of 52 degrees.
6. It is the most popular attraction in Egypt.
7. It is built mostly of limestone.
8. Its original height was 146.6m. Its present height is 138.75m.
9. Its base is 230 metres square.
10. Estimated volume = 2,521,000 cu m.
11. The pyramid contains a staggering 2.3 million blocks of stone.
12. Its estimated weight is 6.5 million tonnes.
13. The average weight of each stone was 2.5 tonnes.
14. But some weigh as much as 50 tonnes!
15. The stones were pulled on wooden sledges.
16. It is thought that over 4000 skilled stone masons worked on the pyramid.
17. And possibly 100,000 farmers joined them during the inundation period (annual flooding). As reported by the Greek historian, Herodotus.
18. However, the Egyptologist, Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie thought a more realistic number would have been between five and six thousand (Who knows?). On the other hand there are many theories that conclusively show that even with 500,000 workers working day and night the pyramids could not have been built in even 200 years. The ancient Egytians just did not have the technology to conceptualize, plan, and execute to completion such an enormous project.
19. The inundation period lasted for three months.
20. Living quarters and workshops had to be specially built for the men and women.
21. The workers were paid with food and drink rations.
22. Approximately 100,000 bundles of onions and 200,000 loaves of bread were supplied daily to feed the workers three times a day.
23. The workers received one day off in ten.
24. Finest limestone, brought from the quarries at Tura, was used for the outer casing that filled in the steps of the pyramid.
25. This limestone was ferried across the Nile from the East Bank.
26. The fine limestone was stolen from the pyramid and used to build parts of Cairo.
27. The burial chamber and inner passages are made of granite.
28. The burial chamber ceiling consists of nine slabs of granite with a combined weight of approximately 400 tonnes.
29. This granite was shipped from quarries at Aswan, some 800 kilometers away (500 miles).
30. The pyramid took over 20 years to complete (as reported by Herodotus).
31. Herodotus also tells us that prior to this, it took ten years to prepare the ground, waterways, underground chambers, ramps etc.
32. The Great Pyramid is arguably the most accomplished engineering feat of the Ancient World. It's 756 feet long on each side, 450 high and is composed of 2,300,000 blocks of stone, each averaging 2 1/2 tons in weight. Despite the makers' limited surveying tools no side is more than 8 inches different in length than another, and the whole structure is perfectly oriented to the points of the compass. Until the 19th century it was the tallest building in the world and, at the age of 4,500 years, it is the only one of the famous "Seven Wonders of the Ancient World" that still stands. It is the Great Pyramid of Khufu, at Giza, Egypt.
33. Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie conducted an extensive survey of the pyramid site in 1881.
34. The Greeks called Khufu - 'Cheops'.
35. The Great Pyramid is named, 'Khufu belongs to the Horizon'.
36. The Great Pyramid was built on a 13-acre base made level to within less than 1". 900 million cubic feet of granite blocks were used in its construction. To this day engineers can't explain how the workers managed to fit those huge blocks together so carefully in building a monument nearly 500 feet high. Some of the larger ones weighed nearly 80 tons.
37. It originally had a face of polished white limestone consisting of 115,000 stones finished on all six sides to within .01 inch of perfectly straight. Cut on a bevel, they fit together with seams of less than 1/50th of an inch. They were then cemented together and polished to a high sheen. It's said that the pyramid shone as if made of light itself and could be seen from over a hundred miles away.
38. The entire structure rests on 4 foundation stones that fit into sockets cut into the bedrock. These stones are designed to compensate for changes in temperature. They keep the pyramid square and level at all times, and in fact it's square on every course. It faces due North more accurately than we can position buildings today so that each side faces the four cardinal points of the compass. Its shadow predicted equinoxes and solstices.
39. The sides are concave at the bottom. Their curvature conforms to the curvature of the earth's surface, so if you could draw a circle extended from any two adjacent corners it would equal the circumference of Earth at the Equator.
40. A single entrance on the North side opens into a passageway that slopes down 150 feet to the base where it descends another 200 feet into the bedrock on a line that's straight to within 1/4 of an inch over its 350 ft. length. The passageway, chambers and air vents were precut into the stones before they were placed and appeared in their finished form as the stones were fitted together. On one day in history the angle of this passageway looking up from the bottom pointed directly at the North Star while if you could have drawn a line straight up from the pyramid into the sky on that day you'd intersect the exact center of our galaxy. That day was the vernal equinox in 2141 BC. Such an alignment happens only once every 26,000 years.
PYRAMID OF KHAFRA
1. Built at Giza, for Pharaoh Khafra (2558-2532 BC), son of Khufu.
2. The pyramid is named, 'Khafra is Great'.
3. It is the only pyramid at Giza that has any of its limestone casing left (right at the top).
4. Original height was 143.5 m. Present height is 136.4m.
5. It has an angle just over 50 degrees.
6. Its estimated volume is 1,659,200 cu m.
7. The Greeks called Khafra - 'Chephren'.
8. Although slightly smaller than his father's pyramid, it is built on a slightly more elevated position and therefore gives the false impression of being bigger.
9. It was opened in 1818 by Giovanni Battista Belzoni.
10. There is a large red granite sarcophagus in the burial chamber.
11. The Valley Temple, part of Khafra's funerary monuments, is the best preserved temple of its kind.
12. The Sphinx stands in front of Khafra's pyramid.
PYRAMID OF MENKAURE
1. Situated at Giza and built for Pharaoh Menkaure (2532-2503 BC), son of Khafra.
2. Menkaure was the grandson of Khufu.
3. The pyramid is named, 'Menkaura is Divine'.
4. The entrance to the pyramid was found in 1837 by Vyse and Perring.
5. It is the smallest of the three pyramids at Giza.
6. The Greeks called Menkaure - 'Mycerinus'.
7. Its original height is thought to have been 66m. Its present height is 65.5m.
8. Its angle is just over 51 degrees.
9. Menkaura was the last pharaoh to be buried at the Giza Necropolis.
10. There was a sarcophagus inside the tomb but it was lost at sea during transport.
11. The internal structure of the pyramid is quite complex and it saw several changes in design during construction.
GIZA PYRAMIDS AND THE BELTS OF ORION
GIZA PYRAMIDS AND THE EARTH
The Great Pyramid (the Pyramid of Khufu, or Cheops in Greek) at Giza, Egypt, demonstrates the remarkable character of its placement on the face of the Earth. The Pyramid lies in the center of gravity of the continents. It also lies in the exact center of all the land area of the world, dividing the earths land mass into approximately equal quarters.
(Figure above: The Plate XX from an original 1877 copy of Piazzi Smyth's "Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid". Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900) was Astronomer Royal for Scotland and a respected Scientist.)
The north-south axis (31 degrees east of Greenwich) is the longest land meridian, and the east-west axis (30 degrees north) is the longest land parallel on the globe. There is obviously only one place that these longest land-lines of the terrestrial earth can cross, and it is at the Great Pyramid! This is incredible, one of the scores of features of this mighty structure which begs for a better explanation.
SOMETHING OLDER THAN THE PYRAMIDS
Carbon dating has been used to estimate the Big Baobab’s age at 6000 years. To put this in perspective the tree is possibly older than the Giza Pyramids and was certainly here thousands of years before the Romans. When the first leaves sprouted the Sahara Desert was still lush and green and it was the Iron Age. Sunland’s Baobab is 22 meters high, and is some 47 meters in circumference. It is still (and is likely to remain so) "the record holder for the species", according to the SA Dendrological Society. In 1993 the van Heerdens cleared out the hollow centre of the tree, removing masses of compost build up, to uncover the floor about a meter below ground level. In the process they found evidence of both Bushmen and Voortrekkers, attesting to the historical importance of the tree. They squared off a natural vent in the trunk to make a door and installed a railway sleeper pub inside the trunk, complete with draft beer, seats, a music system and space for nearly 60 people. A wine cellar has been installed in a second hollow, with a constant temperature of 22° C, ventilated by natural vents. The tree blooms gloriously in spring. It is home to many bird species, including two pairs of owls.
GIZA PLATEAU COMPUTER MODEL
(Figure above: Rendered Plateau Model from South)